Speech is a process of communication and appears according to the demand of expression of language.Culture is Arabic word taken from the “Medine” and means “city”.Because there was big fall between cities and villages.Every person must have speech culture,as behavior culture.We know that every field of the language has interior laws in phonetic system,in lexicology and grammatical system.To possess these norms and follow them in daily communication is speech culture.But these norms are not satisfactory for wonderful speech.Speech also must be fluent.It doesn’t depend on the norms to be followed.The context of the speech must be excellent,the talk must be clear,must be appropriate for the level of the listeners and it must be comprehensible at the same time.For example,the lecturer changes her or his intonation and it attracts the attention of the listeners,it is the beauty of the language.Speech culture is the practical field of the linguistics,studies the expression rules of language as process of communication.In order to possess speech culture nicely we must know the rules of phonetic,lexical and grammatical rules and must use them in our speech.In Speech culture the theoretic opinions of linguistics is carried out practically .In Speech culture the rules of linguistics is studied systematically.Speech culture has 3 main conditions:
1)The Right of speech – to follow phonetic,lexical and grammatical rules is the right of speech.For example,to go home is correct not to go home.
2)The punctuality of speech – It is determined to find correct language means for to express any opinions.For example,correct words,expressions,sentences.
3)The expressiveness of speech – is to find and use the most successful language means.
The Right of speech is demanded by everyone,for the punctuality everyone must try,but the expessiveness of speech belongs to word artisians.
The most splendid speech must appropriate for the literary language; it must be exact and fluent. Who follows these rules he is an orator or public speaker.Rhetoric is a profession that demands professionalism.Main requirements of rhetoric profession are the followings:
1)To speak correctly,exactly and with intonation.
2)To take into consideration the level of listeners,it means that the speech must be comprehensible for the listeners.
3)To pay attention to the intonation and rhythm of the speech and to use mime and gesture according to the demand of intonation and rhythm.
4)To speak laconically,not to get tired the listeners.
5)To get ready for the speech in advance,then analyze and get concrete conclusions.Rhetoric was formed as a special profession and as science many centuries ago. Orators from antique period were busy with the practice of speech and prepared scientific-theoretical system of speech.
Rhetoric has the following fields:
1)Artistic rhetoric - is taken into the consideration to read poems,prose emotionally and expressively.
2)Academic rhetoric – it is a scientific-philosophical speech which is spoken fluently and attaractively.
3)Political rhetoric – belongs to politicians,statesmen,diplomats.
4)Business rhetoric – belongs to businessmen,undertakers and the speech is about the economy of a government.
If the orator continues his speech with interest and attractively,it doesn’t need to use gesture fitting to the intonation and rhythm of speech.Gestures increase the effect of speech and give it emotional power.Only to use hand and arm meaninglessly very often decrease the effect of speech .That’s why famous orators use gestures in place and try to use them when they need.Mime is also very important for speakers.They must display every emotion,sense(hesitation,joy,grief,strictness etc)on their face.
Another important aspect of communication is the level of context in which the message is passed.Linguists and anthropologists use the terms “high” and “low” context to indicate how much information is required for successful communication.High-context communication is one in which most of the information is either in the physical context or internalized in the person,while very little of the message is actually in words.Couples often can communicate with a look,or a nod of the head at most.Low-context communication is just the opposite: most of the information is verbalized.Twins who have grown up together can and do communicate more economically that can opposing lawyers in a courtroom during a trial.In the Far East,high-context communication is much more common than in North America.This can lead to serious misunderstanding.A businessman was invited to lunch with a Japanese friend atop one of Tokyo’s new skyscrapers with all of the city spread out below them.The Japanese host chose the occasion to give an overview of some of the sticky points in USA-Japanese relations.In his own way,indirect but very clear,he said there were certain things that the Americans had missed in Japanese culture.For the Japanese to show anger is tantamount to admitting loss of control,unless,of course,things have gone too far.No warning signs are given and Westernes as well as Europeans will unconsciously push and push-looking for structure,pattern and limits.Because they are unfamiliar with the system,they will go too far.With the Japanese culture,one must make haste slowly and engage the most skilful,subtle interpreter of the culture you can find.The greater cultural distance,the more difficult the interface.An example of easy-to-interface communication would be Germany and Switzerland.The cultural distance in this case is not great since both cultures are low context as well as monochromic, a concept discussed in the following section.A difficult-to-interface communication would be France and the United States. If you’re communicating with a German, remember they are low-context and will need lots of information and details. If you’re communicating with someone from France,they are high-context and won’t require as much information. Context is the information that surrounds an event; it is inextricably bound up with the meaning of that event. The elements that combine to produce a given meaning- events and context- are in different proportions depending on the culture. The cultures of the worlds can be compared on a scale from high to low context. Japanese, Arabs and Mediterranean peoples, who have extensive information networks among family, friends, colleagues and clients and who are involved in close personal relations are high-context. As a result, for most normal transactions in family life they do not require, nor do they expect, much in-depth background information.This is because they keep themselves informed about everything having to do with the people who are important in their lives. Low- context people include Americans, Germans, Swiss, Scandinavians and other northern Europeans. They compartmentalize their personal relationships, their work and many aspects of day- to- day life. Consequently, each time they interact with others they need detailed background information. The French are much higher on the context scale than either the Germans or the Americans. This difference can affect virtually every situation and every relationship in which the members of these two opposite traditions find themselves.